100 Things every designer needs to know about people

How people see

Wow, I have to say a lot of my preconceptions have been blown away in this chapter alone. I haven’t realized so many things about the human physiology to figure out what it meant to see in our world.

For high school, I did a final project that involved designing out an entire equestrian center. At the center of my research, I focused on how a horse sensed the world. By understanding how they sensed, I tried to anticipate what they would prefer. I discovered that a great deal can be assumed simply by knowing how a horse sees, smells, or hears.

Why didn’t I apply this same logic to humans? Despite being one, I never really focused on the senses of others. I feel I know mine well enough, but I didn’t really think about them. This chapter opened a lot of interesting ideas and thoughts.

I think some of the things that surprised me were also ‘duh’ moments. For instance, we see in 2D. It is our stereoscopic vision that gives the sensation of seeing in 3D. This was kind of one of those duh moments. I also found it interesting when they were discussing peripheral vision. This was a trick that I learned from astronomy, but never really thought more about why that worked. Now it makes complete and total sense.

Another interestingly simple concept is the canonical perspective. When we envision things, we generally view them at the same angle. Considering this is how we see most things, it makes absolute sense that that would the first form of an image to show up.

I can go on to say similar things about colors having different meanings in cultures. I can see why you asked that question in a few classes back when we had a similar discussion. While I’m willing to believe that there are certain colors that influence us on a physiological level, I really had thought the colors would stay consistent throughout the world. I’ll have to take these thoughts with a grain of thought and really consider what I’m doing.

Finally, I totally failed the gorilla video test. It is shocking to not notice something like that. But then, I’ve had exactly the same sort of experience with refreshing a website. More often than that, The website changes faster then I can notice and continue to stare waiting for the page to change when it already had.

I felt that this book did a better job of explaining affordances and inattention bias. The example video was pretty powerful.

This chapter has me really reconsidering the design of my website. I find myself in conflict with many of the recommendations that this book made. I figured that was the case, and that I would have to redo things later.

  • How can you use bad affordances and inattention bias to create a good web design?
  • Knowing now that colors are not necessarily rooted in human psychology, how much to you still believe in the color concepts you believed in?

How people think

Once again, I’m taken aback. Some of them again were moments that I already knew but never connected. So far this book has exceeded my expectations in being clearly informative.

I have encountered a few of these notions as a manager. Cognitive Dissonance is a strong one. Not only at my work sites, but in the world at large. If anything, it is probably the single biggest disorder that the American culture suffers at this time. We are more willing to hold fast to the wrong or uncertain idea rather than concede that there is information out there that conflicts with the information you already have. This is a serious issue, and creates ignorance and denies empathy.

Cognitive loads is another concept that I have encountered. It is something that I have unconsciously measured when I work with associates. I discover the effective load that a person can handle and change how I work with them accordingly. Another aspect is the story telling or narrative concept. I use this a great deal when I’m training. It is a method of teaching that the native tribes relied on for their cultures. By telling a story, the listeners are more likely to connect to the ideas that you are trying to express. By creating this connection, you can draw the people to your ideas. By combining the storytelling with the concept of learning from examples, you add on a two-fold powerful combination.

Something that I did learn from when I was working on Dark Haggis was the concept of data entry. I had to develop a form to enter data from the list of abstracts into our database. I had designed it to start off with using the keyboard to enter submission numbers and user names. Then had the user switch to a mouse to copy and paste data from the PDF into the last two form fields. I had already considered using the concept of minimizing motor switching long before I had learned about it. I had thought of it from the concept of ergonomics.

When designing a future interface, you are intending on breaking the mold of what is the traditionally held cultural model. In your newly created interface method, how would you choose to train and adapt people to your new conceptual model?

  • How often do you find your mind wandering?
  • Does the availability of social communications provide more opportunity for your mind to wander?

What Motivates people

If I thought that the previous chapters were a treasure trove of managerial techniques, this one takes it all. As a manager, Motivating people is a very difficult thing to do. Everyone works a little differently, and there is this thing called a budget. When I looked over the headings for this section, I was hoping to find something that had to do with social interactions. I didn’t see it there, but there was an allusion to it to another chapter.

I like to think that I’ve become a very good manager over my career. Much of the tactics are founded on observations and an understanding of individual goals. However, there are generic methods in which you can apply to a group of people in general.

This chapter seems to reinforce a basic concept that I’ve held. Allow people to do the task the way they want to. Yes, I’ll suggest better ways of doing it, and be exemplifying it for them, but ultimately it is up to the person. So long as the job was completed correctly in the end. This chapter seems to confirm the notion. Variable rewards or no suggested rewards allow the person to be fueled by their own inner drives. If you attempt to award the behavior, or hint that there is a reward, the work will end up not satisfying the expectations.  This confirms the concept of autonomy driving motivation.

I enjoyed the chapter concerning blaming people for their behaviors rather then their situation. This is something that I am activily aware of all the time, and vocally voice a differing opinion of the situation. It is mostly triggered when the person I’m next to says something about what just happened. I had a completely diffrent, and just as plausible explanation in my mind. I speak up and give them an ‘or they….’. It is interesting when the notion of a different explanation sinks in and their facial expression changes. I agree with the author, this is a very difficult thing to break from.

Again with management concepts. Habits are definitely hard to change. This was something that I had discovered in my first kitchen. I was working with an elderly lady who had a very specific way that was taught to her a long time ago. Despite changes in the food program, she still did it the older way. This was a situation where I had to apply very patient and incremental change over time. If I had tried to force her to change twenty things at once, it wouldn’t have worked. It was better to focus on the things that needed to be corrected one at a time and encourage and identify when it was done correctly. Using this approach I could change her habits and made progress to getting her one the updated program.

Dopamine is a very powerful and triggerable chemical for driving a person. It is not something that I have done much research on to figure out how to trigger it. I had never even considered being able to trigger it myself until this moment.

Are there ways that you can actively and dynamically trigger dopamine levels to motivate people on the spot?

  • Would driving dopamine production be a form of mind control? \
  • Do you feel that you are a victim of these tactics?
  • How can you protect yourself from dopamine triggers?
  • If caught in a dopamine loop, and you realize that you are in one, how can you use it?

Principle of Design Pictographs

22 – Affordance – the ability for the design to achieve the purpose with efficiency

 

old-fashioned-hand-water-pump-to-give-you-fresh-ideas-in-creating-your-own-Old-Fashion-so-it-looks-more-enchanting-8
The lever upon this water pump affords the user to amplify their energy to pull water from a well.

 

 

24 – Alignment – Where the presentation of objects is in line and orderly

 

The data on this chart is aligned in a manner that is meaningful to the user. 

 

26 – Anthropomorphic Form – comparing to human physical attributes

 

These syrup bottles have the shape of a motherly figure, which implies a domestic and human element.

 

44 – Closure – design to influence a sense of completeness. Enough to give a picture, but not enough to give the entire picture

 

This licence plate requires that the user completes the saying while not providing the entire saying by itself.

 

48 – Color –  color controls how we view things, and how we feel about them

 

This movie poster uses orange and blue to evoke feelings for the characters. These are commonly used to bring about a sense of epicness, or associations with good and evil.

 

50 – Common Fate – implies that groups of objects are associated with each other as they progress

 

The orientation of these geese imply they are flying together, their motion is implied by this.

 

56 – Consistency – When one thing works like the other thing in an expected manner. The user does not have to relearn everytime a new interaction is offered.

 

Image result for consistent user interface
Each button that activates a mode is activated in the same way as the other mode selection buttons

 

62 – Contour Bias – Curves = emotional stability, Sharp angles = thoughtfulness

 

We find this in comparisons between puppies and adults. Puppies are smaller, softer, and rounder. They elicit more ‘aww’ moments than their larger blockier sharp angled adult versions.

 

88 – Face-ism Ratio – The ratio of body to face focus in images. Brings out personality and mental attributes

 

This image focuses very much on Mr. Bean’s face. Emphasizing facial expressions and mannerisms over basic form. 

 

96 – Figure-Ground Relationship – How much the background and the figure elements work together to create a balance in which the figure receives greater attention

 

Halo Spaceship wallpaper
The ship has a stronger presence in the image. It holds the greatest amount of detail while the background is more muted and lacks distinct points of detail.

 

100 – Five Hat Racks – The five ways one can organize information – category, time, location, alphabet, and continuum

 

This quintessential progression of human evolution is expressed through this pictograph. It is organized in reference to a continuum of events.

 

116 – Good Continuation – items in a line or curve are perceived as a group rather than those that are not.

 

The information projected along the branching lines implies their grouped nature 

 

Color Changing Characters

This code is a simple extensions of a previous assignment. When the user clicks the mouse, the characters or elements must change color. I took my previous bird sketch and implemented this. Overtime the mouse is clicked, the birds change color to random red blue green values.

 


function setup() 
{
 createCanvas(1000,1000); 
 bird0 = new Bird();
 bird1 = new Bird();
 bird2 = new Bird();
 bird3 = new Bird();
}

function draw() 
{
 noStroke();
 background(200,200,200);
 bird0.display();
 bird1.display();
 bird2.display();
 bird3.display();
 changec = false;
 
 
}

function Bird()
{
 this.mycol = color(random(0,255), random(0,255), random(0,255)); //Color of the bird
 this.x = random(0, width); //X and Y location of Bird
 this.y = random(0, height); 
 this.speedx = random(3); //Speed for X and Y planes
 this.speedy = random(3);
 this.direction = 1; //Defines direction for the bird
 this.size = random(10,80); //How big the bird will be in pixels (scaled so may not be accurate measurement)
 this.wingstate = 0; //Indicates if the wing is going up or down.
 this.wingmax = size; //Indicates the maximum distance the wing tip should be from the body
 this.down = true; // boolean value to indicate if the wing is currently going up or down.
 
 this.display = function()
 {
 fill(this.mycol);
 
 ///////////Sets direction of bird relative to mouse location
 if(mouseX > this.x)
 this.x = this.x+ this.speedx;
 else
 this.x = this.x - this.speedx;
 
 if(mouseY > this.y)
 this.y = this.y + this.speedy;
 else
 this.y = this.y - this.speedy;
 
 
 ///////////Draws the Birds

 ellipse(this.x, this.y, this.size*2, this.size*0.5);
 
 triangle(this.x+this.size/2*this.direction, this.y+this.size/6, this.x+(this.size+(this.size/3))*this.direction,this.y + this.size/4, this.x+this.size/1.5*this.direction, this.y-this.size/4.8);
 triangle(this.x, this.y+this.size/6, this.x+(this.size+(this.size/2))*-this.direction, this.y + this.size/2, this.x+this.size/2*-this.direction, this.y-this.size/4.5);
 
 /////////// Adjust wing position over time
 if(this.down)
 this.wingstate = this.wingstate + 2;
 else
 this.wingstate = this.wingstate-2;
 
 if(this.wingstate > this.size)
 this.down = false;
 if(this.wingstate < this.size *-1)
 this.down = true;
 
 if(this.x> mouseX)
 this.direction = -1;
 if(this.x < mouseX)
 this.direction = 1;
 
 triangle(this.x - (this.size/2), this.y, this.x+(this.size/2), this.y, this.x-(this.direction*50), this.y+this.wingstate);
 }
 
 /////////// When called, the bird object will change the color to something random for RGB values
 this.changecolor = function()
 {
 this.mycol = color(random(0,255), random(0,255), random(0,255));
 }
}

function mouseReleased()
{
 bird0.changecolor();
 bird1.changecolor();
 bird2.changecolor();
 bird3.changecolor();
}

Virtual Communities

Is the inworld experience any different from real life?

Full Definition of community

plural: communities

  • 1:  a unified body of individuals: as
    • a :  state, commonwealth
    • b :  the people with common interests living in a particular area; broadly :  the area itself<the problems of a large community>
    • c :  an interacting population of various kinds of individuals (as species) in a common location
    • d :  a group of people with a common characteristic or interest living together within a larger society <a community of retired persons>
    • e :  a group linked by a common policy
    • f :  a body of persons or nations having a common history or common social, economic, and political interests <the international community>
    • g :  a body of persons of common and especially professional interests scattered through a larger society <the academic community>
  • 2:  society at large
  • 3
    • a :  joint ownership or participation <community of goods>
    • b :  common character :  likeness <community of interests>
    • c :  social activity :  fellowship
    • d :  a social state or condition

How does one define a community? If one takes the above Merriam-Webster definition, you can find all sorts of examples that exist both in the human world and in the animal kingdom. Communities require some level of interconnectivity. I really would rather focus on human interactivity though. So, this narrows our view, but also brings into play a new question. Which era of definition do you want to focus on? Prior to the strong interconnectedness that is the internet, people relied upon their local peers.

Communities in these instances involved neighborhoods, or clusters of farms that could call on each other. Communities would stretch across countrysides and include small villages. Sometimes these communities traveled like in the case of tribal societies in the middle east and mongolia, or the american midwest.

These communities were essential to life and existence within the world. There was strength in numbers as our dog compatriots can attest to. Every member of the community served a role. The hunters, the gathers, the caregiver’s, tool makers. Each person contributed to the overall strength and vitality of that community.

If we return to the villages, or towns concept, the roles become more varied, and those people who do them are in greater number. Civilization relies on the sense of community in order to accomplish greater things. In modern times, we even talk of international communities interacting, giving, and receiving ideas and materials.

Our definition of these communities has changed significantly with the introduction of the internet, and that difference can be seen across the generations. Just this thanksgiving, my grandmother in-law was preaching about how children don’t play kick the can, or half-baseball anymore, and that everyone was stuck to their phones. She felt very angry and was obviously disgusted by it.

Take our modern parents, and you discover a whole new aspect. The phone is part of their life style. What interest I have is seeing the generation that grows up now, living with the eternally digitized videos and photos of them growing up as a steady stream of media from their parent’s facebook pages. New ways of interactivity  have changed our view of community and have shifted the idea of where communities are located or if they even have a physicality.

For a time, I spent a great deal of time interacting on the internet. Part of that time involved a program called Second Life. I’ve moderated several forums, co-managed a hosting site, and was a member of every single instant messaging medium available. I had friends from Poland to Australia. I developed networks in the United Kingdom, and Canada.

These experiences are foundational to my view of what communities are. They are groupings of people focused on a particular topic. I would view that any pre-internet society would have a focus on maintaining their city, or surviving the tundra. Since our technology has advanced enough that we no longer have to focus on survival, that our ability to think and imagine became more possible.

Ideas can come from any mind and any place. It is when those ideas are snuffed by the inability to be actualized that we lose that moment of innovation or exchange. Those ideas may lack the resources or materials to become more. The modern communities allow people who have very specific focuses to find each other out, and collaborate. These collaborations can become communities themselves. Each person contributes something of themselves towards the end goal. Even if that goal is to simply share pictures of kittens. There are people who supply pictures of kittens, and then there are the people who view those pictures. This is a community between people.

For a less abstract concept I turn to Second Life. A 3D virtual environment that simulates the real world. People are represented by self designed avatars, and they can interact with each other socially and economically. Second Life is also a builder’s platform in that people can use basic primitives to construct models.The user can then texture and program those models to carry out specific tasks and processes.

These objects can range from simple buttons to cars and houses. Just about everything in the world is created by the user base. In conjunction with this, Second life has an entire economy that has exchange rates comparable to currency with a fee’d ability to convert from Linden dollars to national currency. Where money can be made, people will be found.

Suddenly you have people creating virtual homes, and virtual neighborhoods that the avatars can interact in. There were venues where people could go to interact as well, such as dance clubs, theaters, and role play environments. This created a community that was not locked in by any form of physicality. A person could travel from portion of the world to another with a simple teleport. A person could go anywhere for any reason.

While I do not consider that this is in any way different than that of an online forum. The medium is the only part that changes, and allows for a greater flow of ideas and goods. However, the basic operation of a chat room as opposed to a virtually represented room are no different. What the virtual room does is bridge the two concepts into one associative concept.

One of the above definitions of communities includes the concept that communities are created by a common policy. If you were to look at any online forum, or chat room there are rules that the members must prescribe to. These rules may dictate what is topical in discussions, or how many pictures persons may be able to post. Another forum that I encountered briefly had a policy in which a third of it was made of grammar rule enforcement. Infractions involved warnings, and if grammar was bad enough, users would be banned.

Even Second Life had its rules. Despite the freedom that many users felt and enjoyed within that medium, there were still rules. Some of these rules were not specifically created by Linden Labs, and were created by the communities that exist within the medium. Many of the rules were created by the communities. Many places have boards at their teleport location that showcase that area’s rules and warnings.

Communities grow up around those policies, and those communities will create them simply as the natural order when people begin to gather. The more people that become involved, the more involved the policies become. It is a standard and requirement of any culture, that rules and policies must be created.

The term communities has become something of an outdated if not scientific term used to describe society. Networks has become the term to describe any body of persons associated with each other. I can imagine that the term ‘network’ will eventually eliminate community as a common word. We define our commonality based on interests over location, and are allowed to supply our focus towards that. Networks help to bring genesis to communities. It also allows those communities to find interaction with each other creating larger communities.

So, is there really a difference? I believe that non exists between the physical or virtual communities. There exists between each of them an interchange of ideas and things. People are contributing to a focus and interact in a manner to allow all persons to be able to contribute to that society.  However, it is easy to recognize that the virtual communities are easier to use when only intellectual information is being exchanged. Material transfers are much slower within virtual communities as physical objects must still travel through real space.

Physical communities contribute a much easier transfer of materials, but the materials available are limited to the locality. Connecting with other communities becomes necessary. Physical communities are dependent on each other as much as the people within rely on each other. This reliance forces cooperation and interdependence among all who are participant.

This is a starker contrast with the virtual communities as topics are insular and very focused, and rarely reaches beyond the confines of the medium that community exists within. Infact, if a medium is discontinued, then that community is in essence is destroyed. Virtual communities are dependent on the services that mediate the communications between individuals. This is in direct opposition in that if the medium (homes or cities) are destroyed, the community can still exist.

We can see this latter part in war torn areas of the world such as Aleppo and Syria. Despite heavy conflicts occurring in the areas, communities still interact. School is still being attended and vendors still sell what they can. You can also see it in communities such as the Jewish people, whom have been displaced and persecuted, but the sense of community is enduring.

In conclusion, I can not view many differences between the two forms of communities. I can state limitations that are imposed by the medium itself, but the essential form and function of those communities are essentially the same. The differences presented can be expressed in the form of an algorithm. The greater the physical presence of a community, the more likely physical materials are part of the exchange. The greater the virtual presence of a community, the more likely ideas are part of the exchange. Communities that reside within the Second Life community is still considered virtual, but makes up in virtual goods that give a semi tangible representation of materials. It does still however fall into the pitfall, that if Linden Labs were to go out of business, then all materials within that community would also disappear.

The internet is still finding its footing, and uses. As persons discover how to use the internet to strengthen the communities, old ideas fade as new ones are brought in. As such, the mediums of virtual communities will continue to change until a universally accepted manner is adopted. Until such a time, virtual communities have a greater risk of loss then physical ones, and it is up to the members of those communities to reunite in a new one, should they so choose.

Bibliography

Community. Merriam-Webster, n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2016.

McLuhan, Marshall, and Lewis H. Lapham. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

“Second Life Official Site – Virtual Worlds, Avatars, Free 3D Chat.” Second Life Official Site – Virtual Worlds, Avatars, Free 3D Chat. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2016.

Standage, Tom, and Vinton G. Cerf. The Victorian Internet: The Remarkable Story of the Telegraph and the Nineteenth Century’s On-line Pioneers. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

Eggers, David  The Circle. Print

Mouse Following Characters

New Media 100 lab assignment: Make a character that follows the mouse. I created a flock of birds for this assignment

function setup() 
{
 createCanvas(1000,1000); 
 bird0 = new Bird();
 bird1 = new Bird();
 bird2 = new Bird();
 bird3 = new Bird();
}

function draw() 
{
 background(200,200,200);
 bird0.display();
 bird1.display();
 bird2.display();
 bird3.display();
 
 
}

function Bird()
{
 this.x = random(0, width);
 this.y = random(0, height);
 this.speedx = random(3);
 this.speedy = random(3);
 this.direction = 1;
 this.size = random(10,80);
 this.wingstate = 0;
 this.wingmax = size;
 this.down = true;
 
 this.display = function()
 {
 if(mouseX > this.x)
 this.x = this.x+ this.speedx;
 else
 this.x = this.x - this.speedx;
 
 if(mouseY > this.y)
 this.y = this.y + this.speedy;
 else
 this.y = this.y - this.speedy;
 
 fill(0);
 ellipse(this.x, this.y, this.size*2, this.size*0.5);
 
 triangle(this.x+this.size/2*this.direction, this.y+this.size/6, this.x+(this.size+(this.size/3))*this.direction,this.y + this.size/4, this.x+this.size/1.5*this.direction, this.y-this.size/4.8);
 triangle(this.x, this.y+this.size/6, this.x+(this.size+(this.size/2))*-this.direction, this.y + this.size/2, this.x+this.size/2*-this.direction, this.y-this.size/4.5);
 
 if(this.down)
 this.wingstate = this.wingstate + 2;
 else
 this.wingstate = this.wingstate-2;
 
 if(this.wingstate > this.size)
 this.down = false;
 if(this.wingstate < this.size *-1)
 this.down = true;
 
 if(this.x> mouseX)
 this.direction = -1;
 if(this.x < mouseX)
 this.direction = 1;
 
 triangle(this.x - (this.size/2), this.y, this.x+(this.size/2), this.y, this.x-(this.direction*50), this.y+this.wingstate);
 }
}

Make an image

//
//Make a picture with shapes at least 25.
//


var mousex;
var mousey;
var pmousex;
var pmousey;

var flipper = 1;
var flexThresh = 50;
var flex = -flexThresh;

function setup() 
{
 //
 createCanvas(1000,1000);

 
}

function draw() 
{
 background(50);
 fill(100,0,0, 5);
 rect(0,0, width, height);
 var cx = width/2;
 var cy = height/2;
 strokeWeight(1);
 stroke(0,100,255);
 noFill();
 
 if(flex > flexThresh*2 || flex < -flexThresh)
 flipper = flipper*-1;
 
 flex = flex + 1*flipper;




 for(var i = 0-200; i <height+200; i)
 {
 bezier(0, i, cx/2, i + flex, cx+cx/2, i+flex, width, i);
 i = i+10;
 }
 
 for(var i = 0-200; i < width+200; i)
 {
 bezier(i, 0, i+flex, cy/2, i + flex, cy+cy/2, i, height);
 i = i +10;
 }
 
 
 for(var i = 100; i < height; i)
 {
 line(cx-i, cy+i+flex, cx+i, cy+i-flex);
 line(cx-i, cy+i-flex, cx+i, cy+i+flex);
 i = i + 10;
 }
 
 for(var i = 0; i < cy - 100; i)
 {
 line(0+i, i+flex, width-i, i-flex);
 line(0+i, i-flex, width-i, i+flex);
 i = i + 10;
 }

 for(var i = 0; i < cx-100; i)
 {
 line(i, height-i+flex, i, i+flex);
 line(i, height-i-flex, i, i-flex);
 i = i + 10;
 }
 
 for(var i = 0; i < cx; i)
 {
 line(i+cx+100, cy-i-flex-100, i+cx+100, cy+i-flex+100);
 line(i+cx+100, cy-i+flex+100, i+cx+100, cy+i+flex-100);
 i = i+ 10;
 }
 

 for(var i = cy-50; i < cy + 50;i)
 {
 line(0, i, width, i);
 i = i+5;
 }
 
 for(var i = -200; i <width + 200; i)
 {
 line(i, cy-50-flex, i+200, cy+50+flex);
 i = i +5;
 }
}